The Lymphatic System Discussion

The Lymphatic System Discussion

Pick one lymphatic organ and discuss its major functions.

The lymphatic system is a two-part system that consists of lymphatic vessels and lymphoid tissues and organs. These vessels penetrate almost every tissue in the body and the tissues and organs make immune cells. The organs include lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and red bone marrow. This two-part system has three main functions, fluid recovery, immunity, and lipid absorption.

Lymphatic tissue and lymphoid organs have precise anatomical locations. The lymphatic tissue is separated from the neighboring tissue by a partial connective tissue capsule. There are two kinds of lymphatic organs. Primary lymphatic organs include red bone marrow and thymus, they identify antigens and respond to them. After the lymphocytes mature, they migrate to the secondary lymphatic organs, which include lymph nodes, tonsils, and the spleen.

The lymph nodes are elongated, bean shaped structures smaller than 3cm with a hilum and cluster near the surface of the body. The most abundant lymphatic organ in the human body. The interior of the lymph node is divided into compartments by the trabeculae and enclosed in a fibrous capsule. The subcapsular sinus is the narrow space between the parenchyma and the capsule, this area holds the macrophage, dendrites, and reticular fibers. Most of the gland is made of a stroma, that includes reticular connective tissue, antigen-presenting cells, and parenchyma of lymphocytes. B cells differentiate from plasma and multiply in the germinal centers. Multiple afferent lymphatic vessels lead from the convex surface of the lymph node, and three efferent lymphatic vessels depart from the hilum.

Although widespread through the body, there are seven locations where they are concentrated, the cervical lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, thoracic lymph nodes, abdominal lymph nodes, intestinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes and popliteal lymph nodes. There are approximately 450 lymph nodes in an adult. The lymph nodes have two functions. They are responsible to cleansing the lymph, which is the lymphatic fluid in the lymphatic vessels as well as provide the location for the T and B cell activation. Lymph is filtered by the lymph nodes, macrophages in the nodes destroy and remove waste and harmful substances. B cells are in the cortex of the lymph node and are antigen dependent, they can be stimulated by T cells to differentiate and proliferate into memory cells and plasma cells. Due to the T cell interaction the B cell may switch from IgM to IgA or IgE antibodies.

The Discussion Board Guidelines are below. Be sure to read the rubric. Please check this! It’s our way of telling you how to best succeed. For now, use the info below to guide you.

Post your answer on a specific topic to one of the questions. This is due by Wednesday night. You then need to respond to a classmate. Your response needs to be made on a dffierent day than the answer to the question. Therefore, your posts needs to be made on 2 different days of the week. You will not receive full credit if you post both comment to your classmates and answer my questions on the same day.
Here are some key phrases from the AP DB rubric about high quality posts:
“indicate your mastery of the materials”
“integrate multiple views”
“present a seed for reflection”
“provide evidence that you are reading, comprehending… the assigned materials and other student postings
“giving thoughtful consideration to the assigned materials and other student postings”
“able to analyze them [the facts] and handle conceptual ideas”
Be sure to either repeat the question to which you are responding or to include mention of the topic of the question in the first sentence of your post. This allows others to orient themselves to your response. Also, as you are answering the question, please address the person you are answer. For instance, when answering one of the question sets, address your answer to the instructor (and your class). When you are posting a comment to your classmates, include your classmates name in your post so that they will know you are providing more information about their topic. This will also help me to determine whether you are answering one of the questions in the question set, or making a comment to your classmates postings.
Important! Remember to read all new posts before submitting your answers. Repeated answers/topics will not count as a post. It is best to make a list of the topics as you are reading each other’s posts so that you are not repeating posts when you submit your answers.
Your posts should be a paragraph in length (minimum of 300 words). This does not include the question, quoted material, in-text/end-of-text citations, or statements that say “I agree, great job, I learned a lot or similar language” when commenting on your classmates posts. Short posts will not receive full credit. The discussions can incorporate material from the book as well as outside sources. When copying material for the text or outside sources (make sure it is in quotation marks), it does not count as part of the minimum length.
Remember that, in addition to your post answering one of my questions, you must respond to at least one other student’s post by the same set of guidelines.
When responding to someone’s post, remember to do more than just say: “ I agree” or “that’s great.” Extend the discussion by bringing in a different example, asking a question, providing additional details, disorders, diseases, debating, and/or connecting their response to a question you chose to answer.
Keep in mind that in science we seldom use quotations. The best way to determine if you understand something is to explain it to someone else in your own words.
All posts will be run through SafeAssign/TurnItIn, which is plagiarism detection software, per department regulations. You cannot reuse previous posts you have written from a prior semester. Evidence of plagiarism will result in a zero for the assignment. Repeated violations result in referral to the Academic Integrity committee.
Be sure to cite the source of your information when posting. Your citations can be at the end of your post. In-text citations do not count towards your word length.
This is necessary even if you are not directly quoting someone. You must provide a reference for any idea that is not your own, and for any information that is not common knowledge, even if you have put them in your own words.
Some internet resources are not acceptable. These include any web address that includes,, or anywhere in the URL. I will make a comment in your posts if the citation is unacceptable. Repeated uses from the same website will result in point deductions.
If you use a source other than your text, be sure to include the entire reference. If it is a website, when I click on the link, it should bring me to the exact page in which you obtained the information. You can do this by copying the entire http:// line.
To help keep track of your sources, it helps to have a word file open while doing your research. Copy the URL and title of the page as you type notes. (This can also help with grammar and spelling if you use Word’s built-in checker.).
Spell-check your posts! You can spell check your posts easily within the DB reply window.
Read ALL the posts for the week, not just your own. The DB is meant to be a true class discussion, not simply something to check off your list for the week. The DB questions are a bit like review questions you might be given to answer before an exam. The benefit here is that you are working together to answer them! Our little learning community will sink or float based on how well we all paddle.

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