Quantitative Environmental Management Canada
Final Project – Individual on Quantitative Environmental Management Canada
Your final project is to create a quantitative study to assess some aspect of environmental management
in Canada. Your task is to formulate a research question, then apply skills learned in this class to answer
Prospect: analyze the changes and effects of carbon dioxide emissions in Canada against the Canadian
species index. It will use Dataset1 and Dataset2. Data from Dataset2 will only be analyzed from 1995 to
2011 to match Dataset1. Both datasets will be plotted against one another to show whether there is a
cause and effect relationship.
Your work will be based on datasets provided to the full class:
Dataset1: Carbon Dioxide emissions from a consumption perspective –
Dataset2: Canadian species index – https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/038cdb2a-bff0-
4733-9f07-3b8cc6588e08 (these are the two sets highlighted in yellow)
Your final report should include
A fully annotated R script (use comments with hashtags) explaining your code and outlining the analyses
done to answer your research question(s).
A report that introduces the question you are interested in, details the methodological considerations
needed to answer the question with the data at hand, and answers the question. Your brief report
should be from 2-4 pages long. Your report should include the following:
A title (titles should state punchlines/main findings of data, not topics)
The introduction should be short (2-3 paragraphs) that serves the following purposes:
o Provide background that puts the manuscript into context and allows readers outside
the field to understand the purpose and significance of the study
o Define the problem addressed and why it is important
Data & Methods on Quantitative Environmental Management Canada
This is a critical piece, given that this is partially a methods course. It should take up approximately half
of your report. In this section, you should demonstrate not only that you completed a test or action, but
also show that you know why that test or action was appropriate for the data. For example, if you
removed some outliers, talk about how you determined they were outliers from both a statics
standpoint (the inner and outer fences), and why you chose to remove them rather than explain them.
Perhaps you also ran your stats with and without the outlier and found it made no difference, just to be
sure—all that is part of your method, not your results. Remember that if you choose not to do
something, or if you found something was limited but did it anyhow, you should include a rationale.
Note that here you should only report what you did, not the results of what you did, which is in the next
Include the following sections, and use a subheading for each section:
o Your data: Where did the data come from? How was it measured? What period does it cover?
Who collected it? NOTE: Don’t say “I got it from the Instructor.” Where did I get it?!?
o Data transformation (if required): What did you do to the raw data to get it into a form that was
more useful/informative for your purposes? Be sure to explain these choices carefully!
o Statistical Tests or Analyses: What analyses/tests were performed? Why these tests, and not
others? Where have these tests been applied in similar analyses? Things you might include:
o *Hypotheses: What are your H0 and H1?
o *Variables: What were your main variables, particularly the ones you will compare
against one another?
o Models & Tests: What models (mean, median, etc) did you use, and why? What analyses
did you use, and why? How did you account for variance, for example? Significance?
There may be sub-sub headings in this section.
o Any other methodological considerations/sections? Go back over your R code to see if
you missed anything.
Results on Quantitative Environmental Management Canada
This section only includes your basic results—not your interpretation of those results, which is in the
next section. This may not seem intuitive, but is a convention in publishing meant to reduce error and
bias, and to increase transparency and trust. This section should
This section should include the following sections (USE TABLES AND GRAPHS in your appendices that you
can refer to in your text):
o Description of the data you’re using: What is the general ‘shape’ of your data? What are its
important features? What in the data raises critical questions?
o Results of any statistical tests or analyses: When you ran statistical analyses, what did they
report? Confidence intervals? Significance? What was the variance and distribution across the
entire sample, and within certain strata of interest? Again—just tell us what they are, not what
that means, yet. This section is just for descriptive statistics.
Discussion on Quantitative Environmental Management Canada
The discussion section does two things. First, it interprets your findings. Then, it looks outward from
your data to larger issues that the data addresses, including what your sample findings mean for the
wider population. Your discussion should be concise (3-5 paragraphs) and should address the following:
o Did your findings support your hypothesis? Why or why not?
o Limitations of the study. Are there any caveats from a methodological perspective for when we
interpret these results?
o How might this research be taken up by future researchers and policy makers? (why? How
would they use it?)
o Any other factors of note.
This should include all works cited in your paper. I don’t care which format you use. Just use the same
one throughout. AND MAKE THEM CORRECTLY. Note that websites, personal communication with family
members, etc, if cited, have proper citation formats.
Put all supporting documents here. These should include your figures and tables, as well as your R script
and any other information that would be important to consider that did not make it in your main report.
Name each entry chronologically so when you refer to it in the text, the reader can refer to it: Appendix
1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3… Do not include anything in the appendix that you never refer to in the text.
A note on tables, figures, images.
Use them! Each one must have a title, a legend (where appropriate), have axis labeled (where
appropriate), and a caption. The captions should be numbered chronologically so if you refer to one in
the text the reader knows which one you mean. Unlike the appendix, even if you don’t refer to an image
directly, it should still be numbered and have a caption.
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