Disparities in Healthcare in USA

Disparities in Healthcare in USA

Topic: Disparities in healthcare in USA
Writing chapter 3 (Methodology) Everything that needs to be in this chapter is on the PowerPoint. Again, only chapter 3 needed.

chapter three will describe in detail the 3-5 studies you plan to use to test your hypothesis (in chapter four). All you need to do is describe those studies one by one. Please see the sample paper in the Course Resources for the format of chapter three – how to lay out each study you will describe.

When you describe each study, remember to include as much information as possible about:

the setting (location, date, etc.),
who did the experiment (and their credentials) and when,
who were the subjects, where they were from and how they were gathered?
the research question and hypothesis, or was it a poll, etc.,
how the hypothesis was tested,
the dependent variable (results),
and where you think there were any holes in the research and what could have been done better – assuming the researchers had funds and time.

Chapter 3: 8 pages

Chapter III: Methodology

In general, this chapter describes how the data were collected that answer the research question and its component parts. It is important to utilize appropriate methods of data collection in order to be able to support or reject the research hypotheses. This chapter should begin with a description of the research design used in the project.

Chapter III will most likely include the following subsections:

Setting: if important to the research, describe the time and place of data collection.

Description of the Subjects: depending on the type of data used in the project, this subsection can include either subjects involved in primary data collection, or those described in published research studies. If the project involves human subjects, it is necessary to comply with all requirements set by the University’s Institutional Review Board.

As noted in the Course Home, it will be very difficult to complete your research project in a timely manner if your research involves human subjects: first, you will need to spend much more time in developing the means by which you collect and record data; second, you will need IRB approval. While IRB approval is not particularly complicated it can, depending on your research project, be time consuming. Under no circumstances can you start your research if it involves human subjects prior to IRB approval.

If you are using previously published data you will probably need more than one study to be able to support or reject your hypotheses. You will need to discuss this with your instructor, but a good target is at least two or three studies that measure the same phenomenon as your study.

This chapter will have the same subheadings if you use previously published data. In essence, you “inherit” the methodology used by the author(s) of your study/ies. That is, you will still need to describe the setting, the research subjects, the variables, define specific terms (if appropriate), describe the procedures, and discuss the limitations of the research. All this information can be found in the articles you are using: most if not all peer-reviewed journal articles have a section on methodology. In this chapter you will summarize those methods – for each study from which you are using data. In addition, you will need to describe how you will use those data to test your hypotheses – what your methods of analysis are.

Description of the Research Instrument(s): fully describe all questionnaires and tests, if appropriate. Include a copy of questionnaires in the Appendix.

Description of Variables: list and describe the dependent and independent variables that will be used to answer the research question or test the hypothesis/es. If appropriate, describe how concepts have been operationalized. The variable is on the attached initial proposal document

Definition of Terms: list definitions for only those terms which might be unfamiliar to the reader, especially those which can be considered terms of art and operational definitions.

Procedures: describe in full detail how data were collected. If different methods were used, each method must be described. This subsection should also include a description and rationale for any statistical procedures used to support or reject the research hypotheses. Again, this subsection might reflect the procedures used by the researchers whose data you will use. This section will also describe sampling methods.

Limitations: describe any limitations that may pose internal or external threats to validity and reliability. There are typically two types of limitations: those imposed by the researcher on the nature and scope of the research, and those that are related to a specific research method. Describe the (potential) effects the particular limitations may have on your research.

For example, a research study on the effects of race/ethnicity on SES may be limited to an analysis of data between 1990 and 2000; to a comparison between Blacks, Whites, and Asians; and in the United States. Each research method has some inherent limitations. Survey research is often limited by sample size or sampling method; interviews would have the same limitations plus the possibility of reactivity between the researcher and the subject. The use of official statistics are limited by the thoroughness and accuracy of the data collection as well as other restrictions place on the data collect. The studies you are using should discuss the limitations of the research

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